Wednesday, February 6, 2013

Rails Application Security

Introduction

On the 30th of January this year, the site RubyGems[1] suffered from a security attack. The intrusion originated from a set of vulnerabilities reported a couple of weeks ago by Aaron Patterson in the Google development group: Ruby on Rails – Security [2,3].



Thanks to the timely intervention of the RubyGem's team and help from the forensic analysis folks at Red-Hat, the “Ruby community's gem hosting service” was down just a few hours. This was because the site's admins decided to verify the gems by looking for implicated files from the attacker. In this way, The RubyGem's team was able to mitigate the threat without incurring more problems.

This incident reminds us that any software application, including Rails applications, must be maintained to ensure security. Rails applications need to be patched for vulnerabilities when security issues are discovered. The RoR community publishes security newsletters to keep application owners and developers informed.

List of Recent Rails Vulnerabilities:

SQL Injection vulnerability fixed http://bit.ly/TCDT1s
YAML vulnerability fixed http://bit.ly/TCEaBH 
JSON vulnerability fixed http://bit.ly/VAAcGo 
Parameter Parsing in Action Pack fixed http://bit.ly/SivPUo


Background:
When a Rails developer adds a new model in an application, the new model class will inherit from the ActiveRecord class. This class is responsible for adding any needed information (methods, constants, etc.) to the object (let’s say User.rb). For each single attribute declared to be used inside the model, a method find_by_attribute_name will be automatically added to the instance (i.e. a=User.find_by_id( 154 ) ). The outcome would be equivalent to making an SQL query like “Select * from ModelName WHERE attribute='parameters' ”. After getting the result, put it into a new HashMap according the model structure (i.e. 'users' => {'1'=>{:id=:1, :name=>'me', :last_name=>'and me again'}})[4].

Technical description about this vulnerability.
A vulnerability could occur when a request is processed through the find_by_* methods of any created model. On the client side, when an Ajax call is made, it will be processed by the ActiveDispatcher module, used for routing requests. Inside of this, the parameter parsing will be instantiated through the class ParamsParser.

This ParamsParser instance receives inputs in XML and YAML formats; passing the information in a sort of primitive data to Ruby (Integer, Float, Symbol, etc.). After this, the information will be merged with the rest of the params into a new object of type HashWithIndefferentAccess, finally letting the find_by_* method do its work.

If the client request contains a specially created request with YAML, the attacker could then perform any of the various types of attacks:

·Nil Conditions Bypass (i.e. if @user.nil? ).
·Denial of Service.
·SQL Injection.
·Remote Code Execution.

Keep in mind that this vulnerability has been fixed and labeled as highly critical according to Secunia.com[5].

Software Allies wants to keep their readers safe from security threats. Therefore we recommend you update your Rails version if you are using anything different than versions 3.2.11, 3.1.10, 3.0.19 and 2.3.15.

Please be sure to apply any of the below patches to ensure your application is secure.

·2-3-xml_parsing.patch - Patch for 2.3 series [2,3]
·3-0-xml_parsing.patch - Patch for 3.0 series [2,3]
·3-1-xml_parsing.patch - Patch for 3.1 series [2,3]
·3-2-xml_parsing.patch - Patch for 3.2 series [2,3]

References:

·http://rubygems.org/ - the Ruby community's gem hosting service.
·https://groups.google.com/forum/?fromgroups=#!topic/rubyonrails-security/61bkgvnSGTQ - Multiple vulnerabilities in parameter parsing in Action Pack (CVE-2013-0156).
·https://groups.google.com/forum/?fromgroups=#!topic/rubyonrails-security/t1WFuuQyavI - Unsafe Query Generation Risk in Ruby on Rails (CVE-2013-0155).
·http://api.rubyonrails.org/classes/ActiveRecord/Base.html - Dynamic attribute-based finders.
·http://secunia.com/advisories/51753/ - Ruby on Rails XML Parameter Parsing Vulnerability



This article was written by Christian Yerena, a Rails Developer at Software Allies.



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